Hormones, as we are all aware, are very potent chemicals released by the body to help regulate the bodys metabolic processes and have specific effects on the various bodily systems.
Im sure weve all nurtured clients through the agony of adolescent acne, pre-menstrual breakouts, seen skin bloom or deteriorate during pregnancy, and puzzled over changes experienced in the lead up to, and at menopause. How many times have YOU said to a client that their skin concern was hormonal?
However, when we think of hormones, we tend to think of the reproductive hormones and while they are very important, it is
important to remember that these are not the only hormones that we
see the result of on the skin.
ADRENALINE makes you feel switched on in bursts. Known as
fight or flight hormone. Produced by adrenal glands in times of stress. Adrenal glands are really designed to produce this hormone sporadically, but due to modern lifestyle issues, can be producing more or less constantly which leads to adrenal exhaustion, when adrenal glands become exhausted, the quality and quantity of adrenaline produced will be compromised and the adrenals will compensate with overproduction
of cortisol and testosterone.
CORTISOL - Ever present back up to adrenaline. Cortisol is the hormone that makes you edgy and keeps us prepared for fight or flight, has an inflammatory action on the body.
SEROTONIN the hormone of happiness. Helps keep us calm and relaxed, helps regulate your appetite. To ensure adequate supplies of serotonin, we need to get plenty of deep sleep as this is when the body produces serotonin. So for your client who has broken sleep because of stress, hot flushes at night etc, serotonin is usually at low levels, if serotonin levels are compromised we will make less melatonin.
MELATONIN Works hand in hand with serotonin. Melatonin makes you sleepy and mellow at night. If you sleep well, you will wake up with good supplies of adrenaline and serotonin.
INSULIN Responsible for sugar highs and lows.
Hormones have a number of sources and triggers
What do we know about these hormones? Produced by adrenal glands under stress adrenal glands produce adrenaline, cortisol and testosterone, so when client is leading stress filled life and highly likely suffering from adrenal burnout we see an increased availability of testosterone. So, an aggravating factor for hormonal breakouts at times of stress.
If you have exhausted your adrenaline with stress and are functioning on cortisol,the skin will be easily inflamed and you will feel on edge and you wont be getting deep sleep, so your serotonin and melatonin levels will be out of sync youll feel tired, depleted and lethargic. Youll probably reach for a sweet treat to give you an energy burst. Which will tip your insulin production, which causes a rebound stress in the body which will activate your adrenal glands.
And so the hormonal merry go round begins .. these hormones also tie in with other regulatory substances produced by the body - the hormones that most likely we associate with dramatic effects on the skin- the reproductive hormones.
Oestrogen production varies during the normal lifetime, effecting numerious physiological and biological aspects of the skin.
Hormones, as we know, are chemical messengers that have specific effects on certain cells of the body. They are released into the bloodstream where they are carried to all parts of the body. Burt they will only have an effect on the cells which have specific built in receptors for that particular hormone. So hormones can only have an effect if they bond to the right receptor. The skin has receptors for several types of hormones:
OESTROGENIC HORMONES Feminine action
ANDROGENIC HORMONES Masculine action
PROGESTERONE Precursor for androgens and oestrogens. Regulating effect.
The effect of hormones on the the skin
- Creates proliferation of cell turnover
- Reduce size and activity of sebaceous glands
- Keeps sebaceous secretions fluid and less viscous
- Increases storage of fat
- Fluid retention
- Interferes with blood sugar levels
- Leads to reduction of zinc
- Reduces cell oxygen
- Stimulates hyaluronidase which produces hyaluronic acid
- Gives skin soft, smooth texture
The effect of oestrogens on womens skin is readily apparent. Its regulatory action on sebaceous glands and secretions means that generally, women will have finer pored and less oily skin than men.
Oestrogen has also been shown to stimulate the production of Hyaluronic acid. Which will help keep skin smooth and soft, help moisture levels and encourage regular enzymatic activity.
- Increase cell turnover in basal layer
- Increase activity of sebaceous glands
- Increase viscosity of sebum
- Stimulate collagen production
- Increase hair growth
Men have a higher level of androgen hormones than females and we see some of their effect on the skin when we compare mens and womens skin. Partly because of the effects of androgens, the sebaceous glands secrete larger quantities of a thicker sebum, so the skin is oilier and pores are more dilated. The androgens stimulate the fibroblast cells to produce more collagen, resulting in a thicker, more resilient skin.
- Interferes with oestrogen receptors
Restores cell oxygen strengthens skin
- Stabilises blood sugar
- Normalises zinc and copper
Keeping in mind these effects on the skin, lets look at some of the different stages our skin passes through during times of hormonal change.
One of the most undesirable effects of hormones on the skin is acne. This can range from the odd spot to full blown cystic acne. (Grading 1-5)
Acne is the result of defective sebum production, abnormal thickening (and stickiness) of the stratum corneum, abnormal microflora of the skin and the resulting inflammation.
We know for certain that androgen hormones influence two of these increasing the rate of cell turnover in the basal cell layer (thickening of skin, increasing the likelihood of congestion/blockages) and an
increase in the flow and viscosity of sebum (food for bacteria, creating inflammation)
This would lead us to believe that all acne sufferers have high levels of androgens circulating in their blood. Evidently, this is not the case. To further complicate the issue, we must also consider that the ovaries and adrenal glands produce only about 50% of our androgens, the other half being produced locally in the skin, and even a small amount of androgens can be converted in the skin to a much more potent form of androgen. How?
There is an enzyme that resides in the base of the sebaceous gland that is particularly sensitive to androgens. The 5a reductase enzyme converts androgens into a very potent testosterone called Dehydrotestosterone, which increases the viscosity of sebum. In order to efficiently treat this type of skin, we need to look for an ingredient that will help regulate sebocyte activity such as Vitamin A- particularly in the skin friendly forms of Retinyl palmitate or Retinyl Acetate, in a dosage high enough to deliver a result.
During the first half of the menstrual cycle, oestrogen is dominant and exerts its control over the sebaceous glands sebaceous flow is thin and limited. After ovulation, Progesterone is the dominant hormone which interferes with the regulating effects that oestrogens would normally have on the sebaceous glands, and by masking the effects of the oestrogen allows the androgens to become more significant - leading to a thicker, more viscous sebum production which leads to inflammation and breakouts. So, if your client suffers pre-menstrual breakouts: we can conclude that at that time of the month, she has deficient cutaneous oestrogen rather than focussing on drying out these lesions better to look for an ingredient that will supply phytoestrogens to the skin or an adaptogen that will help cells receptors to recognise these substances.
Unless surgically induced, the hormonal changes at menopause often occur gradually. The menstrual cycle becomes sporadic and ovulation declines, eventually ceasing altogether. At this time, a number of things happen. Progesterone production decreases because ovulation has ceased. The ovaries production of Oestrogen decreases, so we have a diminishing of the effects of Oestrogen and Progesterone. Meanwhile, Androgen production by the ovaries continues at much the same level. So, the effects of testosterone become much more apparent. This unopposed testosterone can stimulate hair growth and cause acne type problems along with a coarsening of skin texture (and a change in body shape!!) This lack of oestrogen also causes a reduction in the action of the hyaluronidase (responsible for hyaluronic acid) The low GAGS means that the skin becomes thinner and is less able to remain moisturised.
Remembering that although our ovaries cease producing Oestrogen, our skin has receptors which accept oestrogen, so if we treat peri or menopausal skins with a phyto- oestrogen ingredient, we will see in the skin the benefits.
As we see, in this brief overview- the reproductive hormones have a profound effect on the skin and any change in their delicate balance can have a dramatic effect on the appearance of the skin. Apart from gently directing our client to an appropriate health professional, if we are aware of some of the effects of hormonal fluctuations on the skin, we can search our product line for the appropriate, effective product to help our clients .
2006 Virtual Beauty Corp
Michelle Woodyard is an ITEC & NaSA qualified professional therapist/educator with over 15 years experience. With eight of those years as a business owner, Michelle intimately understands what level of expertise is required to keep ahead of the competition. Since moving in to roles as a technical representative and educator for leading skin care companies, Michelle, the eternal scholar has grown both her own knowledge and that of her clients. I love the industry, am excited to see all the changes occurring and to be involved with many inspiring salon owners and staff
The Human Growth Hormone: Is this the answer to slowing down the ageing process or is it amino acids?
Hormones are secreted by the endocrine system & used at the cellar level for communication between body tissues including the brain, organs, other glands, muscles and other tissues of the body.
Our growth, mood, digestion, respiration, sense of thirst and hunger, sexual functions, fat metabolism and most other bodily functions are all triggered by hormones.
The amount of hormone released or secreted by the endocrine glands is determined by the bodies need for that particular hormone at a given time. Once the hormone is secreted into the circulatory system it transported
by the blood to all areas of the body but only specific target cells react to their presence! Target cells contain receptors that respond to specific hormones being transported throughout the body by the circulatory system. There are receptors in each of our cells. Each of these receptor responds to specific a hormone's unique amino acid chain or pattern. Once the hormone is bound to the receptor cell, a chain of genetically predetermined biochemical events within the target cell occurs.
The degree to which the target cell responds to the hormone depends on the number of target cells, genetics and the concentration of the hormone. In effect, the amino acid structure of the hormone is the key and the receptor is a lock. In order for the key, hormone, to fit the lock, receptor, the hormone-receptor complex must be an exact match. If for any reason this lock and key do not fit, cellular binding is disrupted, hormonal signals are interrupted and the communication is not complete.
In effect the "chemical / hormonal" phone lines are down.
Hormones also interact with other hormones to produce specific metabolic responses. In some cases the effect is synergistic, that is the cellular response is more than the sum of hormones involved (1+1+1= 4), they compliment each other. In some cases the effect is antagonistic, one hormone stops or reduces the action of another hormone (1 + 1 = 0).
There are two types of glands that compose the Hormonal System:
Exocrine glands secrete their hormones into ducts and body cavities.
Endocrine glands, by contrast, secrete into capillaries to be transported with the blood.
A natural and expected effect of aging is the decrease in function and effectiveness of body structures and tissues.The most obvious is our skin & eyesight.
Glandular function, metabolic function, endocrine system function, immune system function, proteins synthesis, protein assimilation and most other body functions are similarly affected by aging.
The effect of this is that the endocrine systems functional demise can be compared to the "chemical telephone lines" being down. The various parts of the body do not properly communicate with each other. The intracellular & intercellular chemical instructions are interrupted and body parts in effect become hormonally isolated from one another.
Messages that would normally prompt cellular rejuvenation are never sent or received. Consequently, cells grow old, losing natural healthiness.
This process snowballs as we age.
As we age many, most, of our glands secrete less and less of the hormone they are designed to secrete.
There are times when the regulatory systems do not operate properly. As we age this regulation becomes less efficient and hormone levels change.
The amount hormones released by endocrine glands are determined by the bodies need for the hormone at a given time. However the endocrine glands can be stimulated to release more hormone, more frequently.
Replacing the hormones (HGH or Human Growth Hormone, Estrogen & Testosterone) which decline with age is as important to the treatment of aging as is replacing normal levels of insulin is to an insulin-dependent diabetic.
Women have seen a dramatic reduction in the infirmities of aging, + general health improvements, with the increased use of the hormone Estrogen as an effective Hormone Replacement Therapy.
What is Human Growth Hormone?
Human Growth Hormone (HGH or hGH) is the most abundant hormone produced by the pituitary gland (pituitary is one of the endocrine glands). The pituitary gland is located in the centre of the brain. HGH is also a very complex hormone. It is made up of 191 amino acids - making it fairly large for a hormone. In fact, it is the largest protein created by the Pituitary gland.
HGH secretion reaches its peak in the body during adolescence. This makes sense because HGH helps stimulate our body to grow. But, HGH secretion does not stop after adolescence. Our body continue to produce HGH usually in short bursts during deep sleep.
Growth Hormone is known to be critical for tissue repair, muscle growth, healing, brain function, physical and mental health, bone strength, energy and metabolism. In short, it is very important to just about every aspect of our life!
What is IGF-1?
IGF-1 stands for Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. IGF-1 is also known as Somatomedin-C. As important as HGH is, it does not last long in our bloodstream. In just a few short minutes our liver absorbs HGH and converts it into growth factors. IGF-1 is the most important growth factor that is produced. So, IGF-1 is a hormone just like HGH, but it is easier to measure in the body because it stays in our bloodstream longer than HGH. You can think of HGH as the hormone that gets the ball rolling, but IGF-1 does most of the work.
What is a Secretagogue?
A secretagogue (se-krtah-gog) is an agent that stimulates secretion. For now that is all you need to know about these agents with a funny name, but as we move on the functions of secretagogues and HGH enhancement will become important.
What role does HGH play in the body?
Human growth hormone and IGF-1 have been shown to play a significant role in:
Conversion of body fat to muscle mass
Growth of all tissues
Whole body healing
Organ health and integrity
Integrity of hair, nails, skin and vital organs
Basically, anything that goes on in your body is in some way tied to HGH. This is why HGH is often called the "fountain of youth". Elevated HGH levels are what make you feel young again.
Does the body always produce HGH?
The good news is that your body must always produce HGH or you would not be able to function. The bad news is that as you get past about 20 years old, your body produces less and less HGH each year. By age 60 you will probably have lost 75% of the HGH that your body produced.
If you are a numbers person, here is some average HGH secretion level:
At 20 years old we average 500 micrograms/day
At 40 years old we average 200 micrograms/day
At 80 years old we average 25 micrograms/day
It was originally believed that the pituitary gland just didn't have the capacity to produce large amounts of HGH as we get older. However, recent studies have shown that aging pituitary glands are capable of producing as much HGH as young pituitary glands, if it is adequately stimulated. This shows that the somatotrophe cell, the cell in the pituitary gland that releases HGH, does not "lose power" as we age.
The questions still remains, if the problem is not with the pituitary gland, then why does HGH decrease as we age? One theory is that the pituitary gland does not "know" it should be producing more HGH. Our body has a feedback loop that says when the IGF-1 levels decrease, produce more HGH. For some unknown reason it is possible that this loop is broken and the pituitary gland has a harder time getting the signal to produce more HGH as we age.
Another theory is that as we get older our Somatostatin levels increase. Somatostatin is a natural inhibitor to growth hormone. So, as we age the somatostatin levels increase and this leads to a decrease in HGH. This decline in Human Growth Hormone level is not irreversible.
If you're in your 30s you can stimulate growth hormone release and keep your body supplies from decreasing.
If you're in your 40s, '50s, '60s or older there are nutritional programs to recharge your dwindling supply.
There are at least two methods of raising systemic levels of HGH.
Manipulating HGH production by the anterior pituitary through specific amino acid and nutrient supplementation combinations. This research is extremely well documented.
Controlling Hormonal Secretions
The endocrine system communicates through hormonal secretions. The secretions are composed of amino acids. The messages between glands are composed of amino acids. Through supplementation of specific amino acids at specific times we can have a great effect, in effect, manipulate the hormonal system.
Specific glands use specific and unique combinations of amino acids and nutrients to trigger specific responses and glandular / hormonal secretions. By combining specific amino acids and other nutrients we can trigger desired responses to specific glands. Needless to say this is a powerful tool that needs to be used carefully.
Some of the human functions affected by Human Growth Hormone.
Younger Skin & Wrinkle reduction
We all have seen people who in their '50s look much younger. Probably their parents look much younger. Probably, for whatever genetic reason, their body produces more Human Growth Hormone than the average person.
The pituitary gland secretes Human Growth Hormone. The Hypothalamus is also involved in this process. The research indicates that certain amino acids and other nutrients have a very positive effect on the level, amount, of Human Growth Hormone created by the pituitary.
Through nutritional supplementation we can increase the level of Human Growth Hormone. This is a well-documented statement.
Primary research from a variety of sources all indicate substantial increases in Human Growth Hormone levels. The same studies generally reflect changes in the human functions listed above.
The consensus of research is that the following amino acids and nutrients have an extremely positive effect on the pituitary gland secretions of Human Growth Hormone.
L-Arginine & L-Ornithine L-Lysine & Arginine Pyroglutamate L-Glutamine / Glutamine peptides Glycine Niacin / B-3 Vit. C GABA Used in combination with each other and EXERCISE there is a synergistic effect.
Why are amino acids essential for HGH?
The human body is composed mostly of water. The second most common constituent is protein, or more specifically, "amino acid chains". For humans, there are 8 essential amino acids and 14 non-essential amino acids that can be fabricated from the eight essential amino acids. From these 22 amino acids, being combined & arranged into varying specific chains, the human body fabricates all proteins. These are the basic building blocks that combine into literally thousands of "complex protein, amino acid chains". Amino acids are organic compounds with at least one amino group and one carboxl group. The amino groups include at least one NH3 molecule. The carboxyl contains at least one COOH molecule. These molecules are combined in long chains to form proteins.
Amino acids are necessary for growth and cellular replication throughout the body.
Amino acids are a major constituent for muscle, blood, skin, and internal organs.
The proper functioning of the immune system is dependent on the presence of specific amino acids.
They control the pathway that allows hormones and enzymes to be released. In addition to being the building blocks of structure, amino acids in effect turn on and off the "chemical switches" that control our metabolism and body function.
Amino acids are necessary for endocrine secretions, enzymes, and components of structure, elements of the immune system. Amino acids are precursors to many important micro-molecules such as dopamine, nor epinephrine, serotonin, and many other substances critical to health and well being. Amino acids are intimately involved in metabolism and glandular activity. Their presence is mandatory for glandular activity.
Treatment and Outlook
A study of these hormones of the body and their functions is very necessary as many skin conditions arise in which these hormones are involved. The skin treatment therapist is not required and in fact, should not audibly diagnose any hormonal dysfunction. We should however be able to understand the role the endocrine system plays in skin ageing, hirsutism and acne. I have created a chart here for quick reference to the Sources and main effects of Hormones to help you with your studies. (Flo)
2002 Virtual Beauty Corporation
I have a concern; and that is, we are observing an epidemic of over-exfoliation in the beauty therapy industry.
It is the lets peel it mind set that so many therapists have as a first choice treatment modality that is my greatest concern.
An epidemic of over-exfoliation
This has came about from the advent of glycolic peels in the early nineties, and progressed on through to now, with Microdermabrasion machines, enzymes and acids galore to choose from.
It is as if the industry has forgotten that one of the ethics of the beauty therapy profession is to preserve the integrity of the epidermis at all times. Have we also forgotten that the epidermis, a major line of skin barrier defence contains many intricate systems that work in synergy with one another to protect the body?
Each day the skin suffers multiple attacks, whether physical or mechanical, from undesirable microorganisms or the sun.
It withstands these with very sophisticated detection, protection and defence systems in the epidermis and dermis. In addition to its protective function the skin also has a metabolic function, and a sensory function. Finally, it must maintain its integrity by repairing itself.
To carry out its protective task, the skin must be a resistant and impermeable barrier. This role falls in large part on the epidermis, directly Impermeable.... but not impenetrable
The keratinocyte is a hydrophobic cell with a lifecycle is around 10-15 days from mitosis to arriving in the stratum corneum layer as a corneocyte; it will then take around 3-5 days to desquamate.
All other cells of the epidermis have a lifecycle of 28-30 days.
It is the superficial layer of the skin (stratum corneum), which makes the skin impermeable and hydrophobic, protecting the underlying dermis and subcutaneous layers. This layer also resists chemical attacks, thanks to the corneocytes filled with the hard insoluble protein keratin the lipid cement (bilayers) and corneo-desmosome, which ensures cohesion between the corneocytes, and therefore impermeability.
The first line of "skin barrier defence"
Skin is covered by the acid mantle (pH between 4 and 5.5). This is the hydrolipidic film which has all the prope
rties required to prevent non-resident bacteria from developing and maintain the skin's barrier. It is composed of a mixture of sweat, sebum and lipids to which antibiotic peptides are added called defensins and dermcidins synthesised by the sweat glands. The horny layer is not a sterile place and numerous resident bacteria (1012 bacteria/m2) are sheltered there and prosper in the inter-corneocytic spaces.
Normal skin flora; are microbes, mostly bacteria, that live symbiotically in and on the body with, usually, no harmful effects to us. Three species of bacteria are particularly well adapted to withstand the acid environment and antibiotic peptides: Staphylococcus, Propionibacterium and Corynebacterium. The microflora of the acid mantle is an important part of human skin contributing to its function and activities. The various resident species are of an advantage in most cases but under some circumstances and with some groups of people the skin microflora is involved in minor to major pathological processes, e.g. acne.
Maintaining the physiological pH of the skin is essential to avoid the proliferation of pathogens and an excess or lack of hygiene upsets the equilibrium of this cutaneous flora.
Hydrolipidic Film (acid mantle) also maintains hydration; Free water from the dermis continually crosses the epidermis by capillarity and evaporates from the surface of the skin, known as the Trans Epidermal Water Loss, or TEWL (on average 9g/m2of skin per hour). In addition to creating an environment for the skin flora to reside, the hydrolipidic film (acid mantle) plays the important role of maintaining epidermal hydration by slowing down transdermal water loss (TEWL). Plus creating a physical barrier to friction and movement.
Sentries lying in wait
The skin has a very elaborate defence system, where different types of cells act together or successively.
Langerhans cells (LCs), which are dendritic cells originating from the bone marrow, then by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. (See wound healing article) LCs: located above the basal layer, are large cells with long, branching extensions or dendrites. Some of these reach the dermo-epidermal junction; others come close to the stratum corneum.
The close relationship between LCs and KCs through the LCs dendrites; together they form a genuine immuno-competent epidermal unit. Although LCs make up only 2 to 4% of epidermal cells by number, they represent more than 25% of the skin barrier defence of the epidermis.
Langerhans cells are responsible for immune response against an antigen applied locally to the skin.
If an antigen penetrates and crosses the horny layer, these cells take charge of it and leave the epidermis. Within less than 6 hours they may be found in dermal lymphatic vessels where they pass the antigen to T-lymphocytes Real killer cells, the T-lymphocytes release the immunological cascade reaction to eliminate the antigen and keep it in the "immunological memory".
If the same antigen again penetrates the epidermis, even years later, it will be immediately recognised and the immunological reaction will be more rapid and effective. If the antigen however manages to cross this first line of defence, the macrophages of the dermis detect it and eliminate it.
This duo is complemented by the keratinocytes, which, in the case of an infection, produce more cytokine IL1, which stimulates T-lymphocyte activity.
Unless you wanted to create an inflammatory response why would you compromise the integrity of the skin by continually removing the first lines of skin barrier defence?
Therapists often complain that their clients strip the skin to the point where it is red, sensitised and aggressed. So why as professional therapists, are we doing the same to our clients skin?
We know the removal of the acid mantle on a daily basis through harsh alkaline washes and toners will lead to an imbalance of the micro flora.Many skin care lines over used by clients, lead to an underlying sensitivity and an impaired acid mantle. The associated dryness that comes from this action exacerbates the blocking of the pilosebaceous duct, thus accelerating a micro-comedone problem.
The machines, acids and enzymes that are being unthinkingly used by therapists are having the same result.
Yes, exfoliation of the skin is an important step in cleansing the face and body. It can remove the dead skin cells that may have accumulated on the top layer of the epidermis. However, why did the skin accumulate dead skin cells in the first place? This is a question that the therapist often never asks herself and one she should before embarking on a treatment program.
But general exfoliation is not my concern; it is the almost continual ablative removal of the epidermis that is being practised in the beauty therapy industry, which inspired me to write this article. The overuse of professional peels and accompanying modalities for peeling, and the belief that continual peeling or abrading the skin will be the answer to wrinkles, pigmentation and acne.
When the causes of these skin conditions often have nothing to do with the build up of dead skin cells on the skin surface. In addition no further support or treatment is offered after the peeling program, no concern for the inflammatory response caused or healing required completing the treatment.
That old fashioned glycolic creams for continual home care are all thats being offered to the client.
Skin conditions like pigmentation and ageing make up a large part of our clients concerns. The actives required to make changes to these skin conditions are often in the vitamin and coenzyme families.
The area of the epidermis and dermis to be affected by these actives is below the granular layer and dermal epidermal junction.
This is where a peeling modality comes into play, as a tool for the penetration of the active required to make the change to the skin cell. Not the answer but a tool.
Peeling is half the answer:
Removal of the upper layers of the epidermis includes many cells; in addition to this removal, a certain amount of trauma occurs within the dermis. This will involve fibroblast stimulation, increased blood circulation and the dermal reserve (glycosaminoglycans) is stimulated to react to this trauma, resulting in a plumper dermis.
There are many cell and support systems involved in this trauma, protease enzymes will be needed to address the removal of dead and unwanted protein, which will assist the formation of new proteins collagen and elastin. A well functioning lymphatic system plays a very big supporting role in these protease enzymes and all of the dermal action.
Before embarking on a treatment course, ensure that all backup systems are well functioning and that a good antioxidant and repair skin treatment program is in place.
Just to name a few of the actives available to skin treatment therapists of the new millennium, this will involve actives like Vitamins A,C&E, Essential Fatty Acids, Amino Acids and the antioxidants alpha lipoic acid and carnosine for protease enzymes.
2003 Virtual Beauty Corporation
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